Saturday, May 07, 2005


2005 Helyxzion Abstract Nanotechnology to the Moon & Mars:
Helyxzions’ progress towards Nanotechnology and potential aerospace applications has taken great strides towards understanding, visualizing, and controlling matter at the atomic scale. In particular, substantial progress has been made towards the construction of molecular computers. Some progress has been made towards understanding biological molecular machines and manipulating these machines for technological purposes. Also, several polymeric molecules, notably proteins, DNA, and RNA, can be automatically synthesized from precise specifications. Helyxzions technology is particularly suited to this end. This example of "programmable matter" has been used to produce at least one molecular mechanical device. However, integration of molecular components into larger atomically precise systems has made little progress. Scaling up molecular Nanotechnology to produce macroscopic products of aerospace interest, for example, launch vehicles will require large research and development investments. In particular, self-replication, proposed as a route to macroscopic molecular Nanotechnology products, is one step closer to fruition with the use of “ANVIL” as a DNA blue printing tool. This paper is a high-level discussion of molecular Nanotechnology and some aerospace applications. Applications of importance to aerospace and NASAs’ Mars Mission including NanoGuardians, (which will remove heave metal and other toxins form the body) computers, materials, and sensors. This review is not exhaustive and much important and relevant work is yet to be done.
Molecular Nanotechnology is the three-dimensional structural control of materials, processes and devices at the atomic scale. The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly helped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed---a development which I think cannot be avoided." Atomically precise control of matter is progressing rapidly. A particularly dramatic example was the use of a scanning tunneling microscope to write the characters "IBM" by manipulating xenon atoms on a copper surface. While a meaningful achievement it will not prove to be the way in which Nanotechnology will be able to Control the fantastic complexity of atomic scale matter, it will almost certainly require "programmable matter," DNA at the atomic scale, products that are created and/or controlled by computer programs (Helyxzion). Current examples include protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis from an exact specification of the sequence. Beyond today's state-of-the-art lie molecular machines, although a few biological molecular machines have been studied, synthesized, and used in laboratory settings. These technologies should suffice for the production of microscopic products. To produce macroscopic objects of aerospace interest will require some mechanism to scale products up in size. Biological systems use reproduction to produce large objects, such as whales and redwood trees, starting with single cells or small seeds. The construction of self-replicating programmable machines, while extraordinarily difficult and dangerous, should enable dramatic improvements in aerospace systems. Helyxizons technology is the only that offers this capabilities.
Any molecular Nanotechnology must be based on chemistry, and the field has taken a number of directions. Organic chemists have produced a wide variety of small structures, including testable two junction computer devices. Biotechnology has been used to create a wide variety of systems, including 2D crystal patterns of DNA, modified copies of biological molecular motors, and covalently bonded molecular tubes with precise radius. Fullerene Nanotechnology development has produced transistors and diodes and wide variety of theoretical studies have examined the properties of many other potential devices, including Fullerene gears, bearings, and three junction electrical devices.
Progress in Nanotechnology can be reasonably expected to enable radical improvement in a wide variety of aerospace systems and applications. Computer technology will probably be the first to feel the Nanotechnology revolution, with substantial advantages to the aerospace industry. Theoretical and numerical studies suggest that 1018 MIPS computers and 1015 bytes/cm2 write once memory is possible. It may also be possible to build safe, affordable vertical take-off and landing aircraft to replace personal automobiles and eliminate the need for most roads.
The development of Nanotechnology is important for the exploration and future settlement of space. Current manufacturing technologies limit the reliability, performance, and affordability of aerospace materials, systems, and avionics. Nanotechnology has enormous potential to improve the reliability and performance of aerospace hardware while lowering manufacturing cost. For example, Nan structured materials that are perhaps 100 times lighter than conventional materials of equivalent strength are possible. Embedding nanoscale electromechanical system components into earth-orbiting satellites, planetary probes, and piloted vehicles potentially could reduce the cost of future space programs. The miniaturized sensing and robotic systems would enhance exploration capabilities at significantly reduced cost. Thousands to millions of such miniaturized devices could help map a planet in a single launch.
Launch costs might be reduced significantly using nanotechnology, the extreme case, estimating that a four passenger single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle weighing only three tons could be built using a mature diamondoid nanotechnology. More conservatively, estimated $153-412 per kilogram launched to low-Earth-orbit assuming existing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle designs but using diamondoid rather than conventional materials. Nanotechnology itself, the atomic scale control and imaging, programmable matter, molecular machines, and bio-nanotechnology replication, are some of the major challenges and opportunities ahead for Helyxzion


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